Russian Virtual Computer Museum. → The Operating Computing Complex «Dnepr-2»
Russian Virtual Computer Museum.
Abstract— In paper shortly describes handling calculable complex «Dnepr-2, which including a calculable machine «Dnepr-21» and handling machine «Dnepr-22» for the management by Technologies Processes (TP) objects to Automatisation Systems. Complex“Dnepr-2” was elaborated in Institute of cybernetics AN Ukraine and his special designer bureau of mathematical machines and systems under the direction of the academician V.M. Gluchkov (Decision of CM USSR № 1250 from 12.12.1965). This complex was one of pioneer works in USSR. In him on period of 60 years of past century new and original scientific and technical decisions are realized. In complex «Dnepr-2» was realized management by the calculation and treatment in real time by objects, system of breaking, operation system with the division of time, translators from the new languages (Auto cod, Algol-60, COBOL and others).
Keywords— data processing, management by the calculation and equipment, system of breaking, technological process.
Complex “Dnepr-2” is the system of breaking, management real time by objects, OS with the division of time, translators from the new languages (Algol, Cobol and others) [1-3]. In IK AN Ukraine of Glushkov was organized the E.L. Yushchenko department bore the hand in development of general system new computers software She organized the groups of developers of the systems of programming from machine and assebler languages for the recreated machines M-20, Umchin, Promin, MIR 1-2, Dnepr-1 and others.
From the 1963 year the works on creation of the technical and mathematical providing began complex «Dnepr-2» by three groups, including technical realization of these complex, operation system and systems of programming from the modem languages. It was organized several special group. Out development of technical complex the candidate of engineering sciences of A.G. Kuharchuk, and system mathematical providing - doctor of engineering sciences, leader of department IK AN Ukraine A.I. Nikitin. In development the machines bore the hand A.L. Strutinsky, N.I. Abakumova, A.D. Verbovsky., U.I.Zelensky, E.I. Kalaida and V.I. Konozenko, I.J. Machbic, E.M. Lavrischeva, L.G. Usenko, M.V. Semenuk, L.P. Babenko, L.V. Ellansca for developed Operation System and Systems programming from special and universal programming langiages. and the debuggin system. For consolidation of works these groups were joint in the department A.I.Nikitin and is translated in Spesial Constructfl Buiro of Mathematical Machine and Systems (SCB MMS) under IK AN USSR (01.06.1967). From 1 January 1968 this department was regenerate in three laboratories, each of which executed the proper works for complex “Dnepr-2”.
II. The “Dnepr-2” Machine. Basic Characteristics
Main scientific and technical decisions of complex “Dnepr-2” were:
section ally hieratic structure of registers ;
organization of memory for the binary numbers with variable long and by the number-letter information of about 128 characters;
one- two- and three-dress structure of command with operands of variable bit (16, 32 and 64 digits);
implementation of arithmetic operations (to 16тыс. operations in sec.) in the modes of fixed and floating comma and integers;
division of the system on the calculable and handling complex with the high vitality and temporal descriptions;
automatic control of work of handling complex and his communication with the management objects;
parallel work of devices in the calculable complex and information transformers in the handling complex;
compatible communication (about 32) for connecting input (about 96) with the high carrying capacity units channels;
developed program-scheme system of breaking and so on...
These decisions and new approaches to realization of software excelled existent at that time foreign calculable machines (IBM, CDC, General Electric and other).
Basic ideas and principles of general system software are:
OS in the mnemonic language of machine commands;
the DD controller for service by periphery and debugging the system programs of machine in dialog after terminals;
the DD-2 controller for providing the joint work “Dnepr-21” and “Dnepr-22” in case of decision of tasks of management by objects of handling complex;
systems of programming from the Auto cod languages, D-Algol and Cobol;
dialog test of the application programs beds in the set languages after the machine terminals.
Complex “Dnepr-2” not had analogue, but his general system software differed by originality and uniqueness of approaches to their realization on this complex.
Original by project to the decisions of complex were by then:
system of breaking for communication with objects of management on the communication channels;
parallel work of the calculable machine “Dnepr-21”, handling “Dnepr-21” and devices of transformation of information, acting from objects of management to TP ACE;
scheme-program system of breaking and sets.
These project decisions considerably were ahead of conceptions and system software construction on the complex “Dnepr-2” on the comparison from known for that time of OS IBM-360, General Electric principles and by the systems of technological process control in real time:
OS of management by the calculations, collection and data processing in real time, and also conversational, multitude mode of development, debugging and implementation of the programs;
translators from the languages Auto cod, D-Algol and COBOL [2, 3].
III. Complex «Dnepr-2» and Operation System (OS)
For Complex «Dnepr-2» was developed base software with the complements:
OS in the mnemonic language of machine commands with the DD-controller, the maintenance of periphery and debugging the system service of machine in the conversational multyprograms mode after terminals programs entered in function of which;
the DD-controller for providing the joint work “Dnepr21” and “Dnepr-22” in case of decision of tasks of management by objects;
systems of programming from the accepted programming different tasks enterprises, where the calculable complex «Dnepr» will be used;
dialog test of the application programs of decision of different tasks in these languages after the machine terminals beds.
These project decisions considerably were ahead of conceptions and principles of construction of general system software on complex on the comparison from known for that time of ОС IBM, General Electric and by the systems of technological process control in real time.
IV. Complex «Dnepr-2» and Systems of Programming
The systems of programming from the indicated higher languages to «Dnepr-2» were realized by the new method of analysis of programming languages, presented as syntactic tables, extended by the semantic programs of translation of entrance characters in codas of this machine. Original CM-method of translation of languages, the algorithm of analysis of which on its functions of analysis on the syntactic-semantic tables excelled a known method of the syntactic analysis Samuelsson and Bauer by its orientation on PL semantics is developed . Semantics of common arithmetic block of the “D-Algol” translator and «Cobol» are realized by CM-method. (L.G. Usenko and S.L. Berestova) and compiler from subset of the SQL language.
Construction of such tables for PL “Algol” and “Cobol” was automated. It gave possibility to develop a compiler from subset of the SQL language during two mount in GDR and hand over him in exploitation to the customer (1972). A given method of analysis of PL is presented in article “A method of analyzing programs based on a machine language, E.M. Lavrishcheva and E.L. Yushchenko, 1972, Springer, Volume 8, Number 2, Pages 219-223) and the first monograph on theory of programming by V.M. Gluchkov, G.E. Cetlin and E. L. Yushchenko .
System of programming for “Dnepr-2”included:
translators from the languages “Autocode”, “D-Algol” and “Cobol” ;
dialog test of the programs bed in these languages on the basis of DD2 .
For every developed translator a document was created with the complement of 5 generally accepted standard documents (general description, guidance of programmer, operator, and system manager). Description of dialog test bed is executed with the complement of document of the ДЦ2 executive system.
Handing Over the System «Dnepr-2» and Introduction of Her
The technical and mathematical providing “Dnepr-2” was realized during three years (1965-1967). This software passed the successful tests on the state commission (06.12.1967) under chairmanship director of the Computer center AN USSR the academician A.A. Dorodnicina (ECM) and directors
IK AN Ukraine the V.M. Glushkova (and specialists of electronic calculable machines of Moscow and Kiev). After the successful handing over of the “Dnepr-2” complex, the USSR government adopted the decision about the serial issue
The complex “Dnepr-2” was presented on the first international exhibition of ECM in Moscow in 1969 year.. Enormous interest of foreign specialists from USA, France, Belgium, France, GDR and so on), which were pleasantly surprised by the original architecture of this “Dnepr-2”, technical decisions on the management by objects and system of breaking was professed to him. By contract with the BHWN GDR factory VUM (Kiev) development a complex “Dnepr-2” from two machines “Dnepr-21” and “Dnepr-22” (1969r.) in the export variant, which steel by the technical base to TP ACE for the management by metallurgical combinat up to disintegration of USSR.
The members attended to UVK introduction in GDR from groups of developers and programmers UVK “Dnepr-2” with the complement of 10 persons (1971-1975). They originally conducted UVK and software introduction for half-year of stay in the business trip in GDR.
A collective of institute and the VUM factory, which conducted introduction of complexes and systems of the “Autocod” programming, “D-Algol” and interactive DD3, was recipient of an award by order of German-soviet friendship and separately every co-operator by the «Shock-worker medal of the socialistic labour GDR» and got the publication about group of developers of calculation machines, operating system and systems of programming (Autocod, Algol) in the Fur Duch magazine № 2, 1971.
The first variant complex “Dnepr-2” was inculcated in to ACE by metallurgical kombinat GDR (Berlin-Leipzig) on the intergovernmental agreement GDR and USSR (1971-1975) with participation, academic Glushkov. Indicated groups of developers from Institute of Ukraine cybernetics, took hand in development to TP ACE on the VTC BMHW GDR ground. V.M. Glushkov explained to the specialists of German principles and methods of construction to ACE. “Dnepr-2” intergovernmental commission.
He advised a group of developers and bore the hand in the process of preparation and formal acceptance complex “Dnepr-2”.
Complex «Dnepr-2» first in practice of technology of the ECM (on the gilded contacts of its elements) making got out for border, and an offered them theory of construction to TP ACE there was approved. The system reliably worked and successfully functioned up to disintegration of USSR. Thus, created under the direction of Glushkov on example “Dnepr2” operating to TP GDR ACE and worked technology pawned a way to its further perfection and development of similar class of the systems.
During more than ten years complex “Dnepr-2” was exploited in the 52 organizations of USSR, for example, on metallurgical Combines of Zaporozhe, Kemerovo, Biysk and also on enterprises of defensive industry. The council of USSR Ministers halted the issue complex «Dnepr-2» in 1989 in connection with transition of country
Institute MMS Ukraine Academy of Sciences (from 1992) elaborates the new Computers for different subject spaces. In 2014 was .published a collective monograph about new computers and there software . Author is presented this material to this monograph. Another wary interest articles was .contained with different on calculable machines, which was developed in these institute. In this monograph author have another article about systems of integration big programs from module, which have name APROP, and material contained from other calculable machines:
“Neva” for commutation of communication means, is tailor-made GDR (1975) with the complement of the c automatic electronic station “Kvetch” TCNIC, which is inculcated in the international telephone communication in the more than 40 centers network and in capitals of the USSR republics;
“Mir-1” and “Mir-2” known to the peace public with 1975;
Modem Course, cross-country Race, entire computer and so on.
Thus, originality of ideas, decisions and principles of realization of the technical and program providing on handling calculable complex “Dnepr-2” was described. The works on constructing the different computers demonstrate stages activities in row of the home computing engineering in period 70 years of past century.
 Kucharchuk A.G., Egipko V.M., Strutinsky L.L and so on. Handing computer system «Dnepr-2”.Naukova Dumka, 1972.-240 p.
 Lavrisheva E.M., Nikitin A.I. Usenko L.G., Yushchenko E.L. Auto cod of the «Dnepr-2” machine, Kiev: IK AN USSR, 1969. .-98 p.
 Lavrischeva E.M., Usenko L.G., Semotuk M,V., Prichodko M.U. and so on. Handling machine «Dnepr-2». Translator from the «D-Algol» language. Input language. Description of translates.-Kiev, 1971, VUM250 p.
 Blok L.I., Zarubina R.P., Mitropan A. P. System of automation of debugging the programs for Auto cod «Dnepr»-2” .-Kiev: -IK AN USSR, 1969.-33 c.
 Lavrishcheva E. M. and Yushchenko E. L.A method of analyzing programs based on a machine language, 1972, Springer Volume 8, Number 2, Pages 219-223.
 Gluchkov B.M., Tcetlin G.E.Yushchenko E.L. Algebra. Languages. Programming..-Kiev, Naukova Dumka.1974.-318 p.
 Collective monograph. 50 years of scientific activity. Institute of problems of mathematical Machines and systems of Ukraine Academia Sciences. Kiev, 2014, NPP Intercervis..-542 p.